The Society’s library has been continually assembled from the time the Society was established in 1853, and it was initially created by personal donations from the private libraries of the Society’s own members. Today, the collection is the oldest and largest library specializing in natural sciences in Estonia. The collection is improved mainly through exchanges, and less by purchases, presents and donations.

The collection includes approximately 160 000 volumes of literature on natural sciences, with approximately 20 000 books and 3000 different periodicals. The oldest books date back to the 16thcentury. The collection of older periodicals on natural sciences is especially voluminous. From among more recent periodicals, journals on ornithology, entomology, systematics and mycology are well represented.